Jumat, 21 Agustus 2009

GRAMMAR REVIEW (CONTINUED)

MODUL 11


ENGLISH FOR BROADCAST


Juwarti Hafsah, SS, M.Si


SUBJECT:


GRAMMAR REVIEW (CONTINUED)



DESCRIPTION:


In writing an English news text, the script writer must understand about grammar or tenses deeply, it purposes to let the audience know about the situation or time of events happened.


GOAL : By learning and understanding modul 9, wish the students can:


1. Have the good spelling and writing techniques


2. Understanding the differences of spelling a word that have same sound.


3. Can read the news text of English perfectly.


REFERENCES:


1. Broadcast Journalism, written by Andrew Boyd (Focal Press)


2. Tata Bahasa Bahasa Inggris, written by Erhans Anggawirya and friends (Indah)


3. An Indonesian-English Dictionary, written by John M. Echols and Hasan Shadily (Gramedia)


4. An English-Indonesian Dictionary, written by John M. Echols and Hasan Shadily (Gramedia)



SIMPLE FUTURE AND BE GOING TO



FUTURE TENSE



A. Pemakaian


Simple future tense digunakan untuk menerangkan kegiatan atau peristiwa atau kejadian yang akan terjadi atau akan dilakukan.



B. Struktur Kalimat


Dalam menyusun kalimat simple future tense, kita harus menggunakan shall atau will disertai kata kerja I (infinitive)



C. Kalimat Tanya


Strukturnya sebagai berikut :



Shall/will + subject + infinitive + object



What/where/when/why/who/how + shall/will + subject + infinitive + object



Example:




  1. What will you do on next Saturday?


  2. Who will help them?


  3. When will they come back?


D. Kalimat Negatif


Strukturnya sebagai berikut :



Subject + shall/will + not + infinitive + object



WILL versus BE GOING TO



A. Pemakaian


Keduanya dapat digunakan untuk Memprediksikan sesuatu. Apabila si pelaku atau pembicara membuat sebuah prediksi tentang sesuatu yang diperkirakan olehnya akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang, baik will atau be going to, dapat digunakan.



Be going to, digunakan untuk suatu rencana prioritas (yang sudah pasti akan dilakukan atau direalisasikan dengan keyakinan yang kuat)


Will, digunakan untuk keinginan atau rencana (yang belum pasti akan direalisasikan)



B. Contoh-contoh


1. a. According to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow.


b. According to the weather report, it is going to cloudy tomorrow.


note:


is adalah tobe. Maka, be secara otomatis akan berganti menjadi tobe yang sesuai dengan subjeknya.



2. I’m going to paint my bedroom tomorrow.


Mengecat kamar menjadi kegiatan prioritas yang direncanakan untuk dilakukan esok hari.



3. The phone is ringing, I’ll get it.


Menjawab atau mengangkat telepon bukanlah hal yang direncanakan. Si pelaku atau pembicara tidak memprioritaskan untuk menjawab telepon. Ia hanya bersukarela untuk menjawab telepon untuk menunjukkan keinginannya, bukan niatnya.



Exercise:


Trying to make samples of the future tenses, especially which is used the will and be going to, to make you sure being understand of this lesson!



Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.


simplefuture


FORM Will


[will + verb]


Examples:




  • You will help him later.


  • Will you help him later?


  • You will not help him later.

FORM Be Going To


[am/is/are + going to + verb]


Examples:




  • You are going to meet Jane tonight.


  • Are you going to meet Jane tonight?


  • You are not going to meet Jane tonight.

Complete List of Simple Future Forms


USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action


"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else’s complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won’t" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.


Examples:




  • I will send you the information when I get it.


  • I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.


  • Will you help me move this heavy table?


  • Will you make dinner?


  • I will not do your homework for you.


  • I won’t do all the housework myself!


  • A: I’m really hungry.
    B: I’ll make some sandwiches.


  • A: I’m so tired. I’m about to fall asleep.
    B: I’ll get you some coffee.


  • A: The phone is ringing.
    B: I’ll get it.

USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise


"Will" is usually used in promises.


Examples:




  • I will call you when I arrive.


  • If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.


  • I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.


  • Don’t worry, I’ll be careful.


  • I won’t tell anyone your secret.

USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan


"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.


Examples:




  • He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.


  • She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.


  • A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
    B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.


  • I’m going to be an actor when I grow up.


  • Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.


  • They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.


  • Who are you going to invite to the party?


  • A: Who is going to make John’s birthday cake?
    B: Sue is going to make John’s birthday cake.

USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction


Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.


Examples:




  • The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.


  • The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.



  • John Smith will be the next President.


  • John Smith is going to be the next President.



  • The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.


  • The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.

In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence’s meaning.


No Future in Time Clauses


Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used.


Examples:




  • When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct


  • When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct


Do the exercise below:


Will / Be Going to








1. A: Why are you holding a piece of paper?
B: I (write) a letter to my friends back home in Texas.


2. A: I’m about to fall asleep. I need to wake up!
B: I (get) you a cup of coffee. That will wake you up.


3. A: I can’t hear the television!
B: I (turn) it up so you can hear it.


4. We are so excited about our trip next month to France. We (visit) Paris, Nice and Grenoble.


5. Sarah (come) to the party. Oliver (be) there as well.


6. A: It is so hot in here!
B: I (turn) the air conditioning on.


7. I think he (be) the next President of the United States.


8. After I graduate, I (attend) medical school and become a doctor. I have wanted to be a doctor all my life.


9. A: Excuse me, I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. I am afraid it is simply too small for four people.
B: That man at the service counter (help) you.


10. As soon as the weather clears up, we (walk) down to the beach and go swimming.



FUTURE CONTINUOUS


Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.


FORM Future Continuous with "Will"


[will be + present participle]


Examples:




  • You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.


  • Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?


  • You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

FORM Future Continuous with "Be Going To "


[am/is/are + going to be + present participle]


Examples:




  • You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.


  • Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?


  • You are not going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

REMEMBER: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Continuous with little difference in meaning.


Complete List of Future Continuous Forms


USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future


futurecontinuous


Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.


Examples:




  • I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.


  • I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.


  • I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.


  • He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.

Notice in the examples above that the interruptions (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.


USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future


futurecontinuous


In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.


Examples:




  • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
    I will be in the process of eating dinner.


  • At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.
    We will be in the process of driving through the desert.

REMEMBER


In the Simple Future, a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin or end. In the Future Continuous, a specific time interrupts the action.


Examples:




  • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to eat dinner.
    I am going to start eating at 6 PM.


  • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
    I am going to start earlier and I will be in the process of eating dinner at 6 PM.

USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future


futurecontinuousparallel


When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.


Examples:




  • I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.


  • Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.


  • While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television.
    Notice "is reading" because of the time clause containing "while." (See Explanation Below)

USE 4 Atmosphere in the Future


In English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in the future.


Example:




  • When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses


Like all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used.


Examples:




  • While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct


  • While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs


It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Future.


Examples:




  • Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct


  • Jane will be at my house when you arrive. Correct


Do the exercise below:



Simple Future / Future Continuous



1.
Sandra: Where is Tim going to meet us?
Marcus: He (wait) for us when our train arrives. I am sure he (stand) on the platform when we pull into the station.
Sandra: And then what?
Marcus: We (pick) Michele up at work and go out to dinner.


2.
Ted: When we get to the party, Jerry (watch) TV, Sam (make) drinks, Beth (dance) by herself, and Thad (complain) about his day at work.
Robin: Maybe, this time they won’t be doing the same things.
Ted: I am absolutely positive they (do) the same things; they always do the same things.


3.
Florence: Oh, look at that mountain of dirty dishes! Who (wash) all of those?
Jack: I promise I (do) them when I get home from work.
Florence: Thanks.
Jack: When you get home this evening, that mountain will be gone and nice stacks of sparkling clean dishes (sit) in the cabinets.


4. Doug: If you need to contact me next week, I (stay) at the Hoffman Hotel.
Nancy: I (call) you if there are any problems.
Doug: This is the first time I have ever been away from the kids.
Nancy: Don’t worry, they (be) fine.


5. Samantha: Just think, next week at this time, I (lie) on a tropical beach in Maui drinking Mai Tai’s and eating pineapple.
Darren: While you are luxuriating on the beach, I (stress) out over this marketing project. How are you going to enjoy yourself knowing that I am working so hard.
Samantha: I ’ll manage somehow.
Darren: You’re terrible. Can’t you take me with you?
Samantha: No. But I (send) you a postcard of a beautiful, white-sand beach.
Darren: Great, that (make) me feel much better.

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